Measuring the open circuit voltage (OCV) of a battery to determine the amount of service life remaining can be misleading and at best will only yield a rough estimate. A more accurate method is to measure the closed circuit voltage (CCV) of the battery.
The following are recommendations that should be followed to obtain maximum battery performance.
- Read the instructions on your device before installing batteries. Make sure to insert the batteries properly.
- Replace batteries with the size and type specified by the device’s manufacturer. Remove all used batteries from the device at the same time, and then replace them with new batteries of the same size and type.
- Store batteries in a cool, dry place at normal room temperature. Remove batteries from devices that will be stored for extended periods.
- Inspect devices battery compartment every few months to be sure batteries are not leaking.
- Keep battery contact surfaces clean by gently rubbing with a clean pencil eraser or cloth.
- Don’t carry loose batteries in a pocket or purse with metal objects like coins, paper clips, etc.
- This could potentially short-circuit the battery, generating high heat. When unpacked batteries are mixed together, they can easily short-circuit each other, particularly button-type batteries.
- Don’t recharge a battery unless it is specifically marked “rechargeable.” Attempting to recharge a primary (non-rechargeable) battery could result in rupture or leakage.
- Don’t use rechargeable batteries in chargers that are not designed for the specific battery type.
- Don’t put batteries or battery-powered devices in hot places – elevated temperatures increase the self-discharge of batteries.
- Do not dispose of batteries in fire.
- Don’t mix old and new batteries, or mix different types or makes of batteries. This can cause rupture or leakage, resulting in personal injury or property damage.
- Don’t crush, puncture, take apart batteries or otherwise damage batteries. This can cause rupture or leakage, resulting in personal injury or property damage.
- Keep batteries out of reach of children.
The batteries are solid, not liquid, which precludes their being a corrosive waste, since corrosive waste must be liquid by definition. As an inert solid, flash point is not an appropriate test for ignitability.
Batteries are a safe consumer product and, under standard temperature and pressure conditions, will not cause fire through friction, absorption of moisture, or spontaneous chemical changes. The batteries contain no sulfides or cyanides, and they do not meet any other reactivity criteria.
The transportation of dry cell batteries are not regulated as Dangerous Goods by USA Transportation (DOT), the International Air Transport Association (IATA), the International Maritime Dangerous Goods code (IMDG), or the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).
The batteries and their packaging must be protected at all times from direct sun and any sources of moisture, such as rain or wet flooring. Shock and vibration shall be avoided by ensuring that boxes are placed and stacked gently, and properly secured from movement during transport. To lessen the exposure of the batteries to heat, metal shipping containers should be ventilated and kept away from heat sources such as ship’s engines or direct sunlight. Stowage on ships must be below deck, while during other transport (road, rail, etc) and on/off loading, exposure to direct sunlight should be kept to a minimum
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