We often ask, are batteries transported as dangerous goods? Is there any special certification required?
There are many types of batteries, including disposable ones and rechargeable ones. Rechargeable batteries are divided into lithium batteries, nickel-metal hydride batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries and so on. Some batteries are dangerous goods, and some batteries are not dangerous goods. This depends on the type of battery.
#1-The disposable dry batteries are not as dangerous goods during transportation, such as alkaline batteries and carbon batteries, mainly related to models: LR6, LR03, LR14, LR20, 6LR61, R03, R6, R14, R20, 6F22 and AG13 series button cells. Disposable dry batteries are transported as non-dangerous goods. Air transport is based on ICAO-IATA / DGR 62nd, ocean transport is based on IMDG CODE 39-18 edition, and land transport is based on TDG, and they are all classified as non-dangerous transport. There is no need for special dangerous goods vehicles to transport, and it can be used as ordinary goods and can be transported by ordinary transport vehicles. Features are as follows:
UN Proper Shipping Name: N/A
Transport hazard class: N/A
Subsidiary risk: N/A
Packaging group: N/A
Packaging Sign: N/A
Other information : Special provisions A123 under IATA DGR 62nd edition.
Special precautions for user: N/A
Marine Pollutant (Y/N): No
But dry batteries and their packaging must be protected at all times from direct sun and any sources of moisture, such as rain or wet flooring. Generally, the temperature of the compartment for transporting dry batteries should not exceed 30 degrees Celsius, and must not get in the rain.
Shock and vibration shall be avoided by ensuring that boxes are placed and stacked gently, and properly secured from movement during transport. To lessen the exposure of the batteries to heat, metal containers should be ventilated and kept away from heat sources such as ship’s engines or direct sunlight.
#2-Lithium batteries are as dangerous goods during transportation. Lithium batteries are either lithium-ion power batteries used in electric vehicles or lithium-ion energy storage batteries used by power companies. These are used as lithium ion secondary batteries and are transported as dangerous goods during transportation and are subject to dangerous goods regulations. I will mainly discuss the most commonly used air transportation and ocean transportation.
Since lithium is a metal that is particularly prone to chemical reactions, it is easy to extend and burn, and if the lithium battery is packaged and transported improperly, it is easy to burn and explode, and accidents occur from time to time. Accidents caused by non-standard behaviors in its packaging and transportation have received more and more attention. Many international agencies have issued multiple regulations, and various management agencies have become more and more strict, raising operational requirements, and constantly revising regulations and regulations (such as : IATA revises regulations for lithium battery transportation every two years)
– Classification of lithium batteries:
The transportation of lithium batteries first needs to provide the corresponding UN number. As the following UN numbers, lithium batteries are classified as Category 9 Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods:
UN3090, Lithium metal batteries
UN3480, Lithium ion batteries
UN3091, Lithium metal batteries contained in equipment
UN3091, Lithium metal batteries packed with equipment (Lithium metal batteries packed with equipment)
UN3481, Lithium ion batteries contained in equipment
UN3481, Lithium ion batteries packed with equipment
– Lithium battery transport packaging
1 Without considering exceptions, these batteries must be transported in compliance with the rules (packaging instructions applicable to DGR 4.2). They must be packed in the UN specification packaging specified in the DGR Dangerous Goods Regulations in accordance with the applicable packaging instructions, and the corresponding numbers must be displayed on the packaging.IATA Class 9 Dangerous Goods Label .
2. The packaging that meets the requirements, except for the marks marked with the applicable correct shipping name and UN number,
A category 9 hazard label must also be affixed.
3. The shipper must fill in the dangerous goods declaration form; provide the corresponding dangerous package certificate;
Provide a transportation appraisal report issued by a certified third organization, and show that it is a product that meets the standard (including UN38.3 test, 1.2-meter drop packaging test).
– Lithium battery air transportation requirements
1. The battery must pass the UN 38.3 test requirements and the 1.2-meter drop packaging test
2. The dangerous goods declaration document provided by the shipper, marked with UN number
All-cargo aircraft transportation only
3. The outer packaging must be affixed with the label of category 9 dangerous goods, and the operation label “only for all-cargo aircraft transportation” shall be affixed
4. The design should ensure that it prevents bursting under normal transportation conditions, and is equipped with effective measures to prevent external short circuits.
5. With strong outer packaging, the battery should be protected to prevent short circuit, and in the same packaging, it must be prevented from contacting with conductive materials that can cause short circuit.
6. Additional requirements for the battery to be installed and transported in the device:
a. The equipment should be fixed to prevent the battery from moving in the packaging, and the packaging method should prevent the battery from accidentally starting during transportation.
b. The outer packaging should be waterproof, or by using an inner lining (such as a plastic bag) to achieve waterproof, unless the structural characteristics of the device itself already have waterproof characteristics.
7. Lithium batteries should be loaded on pallets to avoid strong vibration during handling. Use corner guards to protect the vertical and horizontal sides of the pallet.
8. The weight of a single package is less than 35 kgs.
9. Airline operation attention:
l Only for all-cargo aircraft transportation
l Lithium battery air transport information appears on the captain’s notice
l Enhance crew awareness and decision-making in emergency situations may change accordingly
l Inform the first attendee of the type and quantity of batteries in the cargo compartment
l The US FAA requires that lithium batteries should be loaded in the cargo compartment of the aircraft with a class C cargo compartment. The cargo compartment must have a smoke detection system, an alarm system, and a fire extinguishing system.
– Marine transportation requirements for lithium batteries
1. The battery must pass the UN 38.3 test requirements and the 1.2-meter drop packaging test.
2. The outer packaging must be affixed with the label of category 9 dangerous goods, marked with the UN number
3. Its design can ensure the prevention of bursting under normal transportation conditions, and is equipped with effective measures to prevent external short circuits.
4. Strong outer packaging, the battery should be protected to prevent short circuit, and in the same packaging, it should be prevented from contacting with conductive materials that can cause short circuit.
5. Additional requirements for the battery to be installed and transported in the device:
a. The equipment should be fixed to prevent it from moving in the packaging, and the packaging method should prevent accidental activation during transportation.
b. The outer packaging should be waterproof, or by using an inner lining (such as a plastic bag) to achieve waterproofness, unless the structural features of the device itself are already waterproof.
6. Lithium batteries should be loaded on pallets to avoid strong vibration during handling. Use corner guards to protect the vertical and horizontal sides of the pallet.
7. Lithium batteries must be reinforced in the container, and the reinforcement method and strength should meet the requirements of the importing country (such as: American Association of Railroads <ARR>, American Dangerous Goods Association, North American Bureau of Explosives <BOE>, Federal Motor Transportation Safety The Administration, the U.S. Coast Guard, the U.S. Department of Transportation and the Regulations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods at Sea have relevant regulations). High costs such as storage fees, relocation fees, and re-reinforcement.