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What is the effect of temperature on the electrical performance of primary batteries?

directly affect the battery

Temperature can directly affect the battery. At different temperatures, the performance of the battery will also be affected and change differently. Therefore, it is necessary for customers to fully understand the relevant knowledge before testing the battery. of. Temperature has a great impact on the electrical performance of batteries, especially disposable alkaline batteries and carbon-zinc batteries. Today I will analyze the raw materials and the structure of the battery. Why does it affect the electrical performance of the battery? And how much does it affect electrical properties at different temperatures?

#1-What is the effect of temperature on the electrical performance of primary batteries?

temperature affect the electrical performance

The energy conversion of primary batteries is from chemical energy to electrical energy, and is irreversible. During the use of the battery, the positive and negative materials need to undergo chemical reaction under the action of the electrolyte. The higher the temperature, the stronger the activity and the more thorough the discharge.

The main component of the electrolyte of the disposable alkaline battery is potassium hydroxide, which exists in the positive manganese dioxide manganese ring, the negative zinc paste, and the injected electrolyte, mainly in the electrolyte. The electrolyte is adsorbed on the separator paper during the battery production process.

The solubility of potassium hydroxide in water varies with temperature as follows:

0℃: 97g; 10℃: 103g; 20℃: 112g; 30℃: 126g

The main components of the electrolyte of disposable carbon batteries are ammonium chloride and zinc chloride. Ammonium chloride and zinc chloride are mainly contained in manganese dioxide manganese powder, the positive electrode material.

The solubility of ammonium chloride in water varies with temperature as follows:

0°C: 29.4g; 10°C: 33.3g; 50°C: 50g; 80°C: 65.6g

It can be seen that whether it is an alkaline battery or a carbon battery, the effect of temperature on the electrical performance is obvious and direct.

2. How does temperature affect electrical properties?

temperature affect electrical properties

When the battery is in use, if the ambient temperature is too high or too low, it will obviously affect the discharge time of the battery. According to IEC60086-2:2021, the test data provided by battery manufacturers all require discharge at 20°C.

I do a simple comparative analysis through a set of data,

Take the alkaline LR6/AA battery as an example, at 3.9 ohms, continuously discharge to 0.9V, the discharge time is 360mins at room temperature 20℃

At 0℃: 200mins; at 10℃: 280mins; at 20℃: 360mins; at 25℃: 400mins

The temperature has a great influence on the performance of the battery during use. Carbon-zinc batteries are more sensitive to temperature, so it is recommended to use alkaline batteries in places where the temperature is relatively low.

Carl Zhang

Carl Zhang

I am a senior sales with 15 years in the battery industry and a bachelor's degree in economics.
I will be sharing some of my expertise on batteries and my insights into the battery industry in my blog, which should help you with your purchases in China.

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