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How Are Alkaline Batteries Made

#1 – Alkaline Battery Structure Diagram

First, we introduce the main raw materials of alkaline batteries, refer to the following structure diagram.

alkaline battery tructure diagram
  • The cylinder (metal shell) that contains the cells is made of nickel-plated steel.
  • It is lined with a separator that divides the cathode from the anode and is made of synthetic material.
  • A brass nail is welded to a metal end cap and passed through an exterior plastic seal.
  • Inside the cylinder, the anode consists of a mixture of manganese dioxide, graphite, and a potassium hydroxide solution; the cathode comprises zinc powder and a potassium hydroxide electrolyte.

#2 – Alkaline Battery Production Process

The main production process of alkaline batteries is as follows:

① Huge loads of the constituent ingredients—manganese dioxide, carbon black (graphite), and an electrolyte (potassium hydroxide in solution)—are Mixing the constituent ingredients is the first step in alkaline battery manufacture.

After granulation, the mixture is then pressed or compacted into preforms—hollow cylinders. Extrude ring.

Make indentation around the bottom of the can.

② The preforms are next inserted into a nickel-plated steel can; the combination of the preforms and the steel can make up the anode of the alkaline batteries.

The sealant is placed above the indentation to protect against leakage. Apply sealant to the inner wall of steel can

③ A paper separator in the alkaline batteries is then inserted inside the can against the preforms; the separator is made from several pieces of paper. Looking down at an open can, one would see what looks like a paper cup inserted into the can. The separator keeps the cathode material from coming into contact with the anode material.

④ The cathode goes into the alkaline batteries can next. It is a gel composed primarily of zinc powder, along with other materials including a potassium hydroxide electrolyte.

This gel has the consistency of a very thick paste. Rather than a solution, it is chemically a suspension.

The gel does not fill the can to the top so as to allow space for the chemical reactions that will occur once the battery is put into use.

⑤ The alkaline batteries need to be sealed with three connected components. The first, a brass “nail”, is inserted into the middle of the can, through the gel material and serves as a “current collector.” The second is a plastic seal gasket and the third is a metal end cap. The nail, which extends about two-thirds

The nail is welded to the metal bottom and extends about two-thirds of the way into the can.

⑥ This seal is significantly thinner in two places than in others so that if too much gas builds up in the can, the seal gasket will rupture, the battery will not explore.

The seal gasket assembly is above the indentation

Shrink the mouth to prevent the negative electrode assembly from floating up

Roll up the edge of the bottom mouth to seal, 

Then Straighten it and keep the diameter the same as the top

⑦ Seal the alkaline batteries

⑧ A loose PVC of heat-sensitive plastic is wrapped around the alkaline batteries can and then heat that makes the plastic shrink down to fit tightly around the can.

Please see the chart below for the intuitive process

production process flow chart

Welcome to our company for on-site inspection, we will give a detailed explanation face-to-face, hope you know more about the manufacturing knowledge of alkaline batteries.

Carl Zhang

Carl Zhang

I am a senior sales with 15 years in the battery industry and a bachelor's degree in economics.
I will be sharing some of my expertise on batteries and my insights into the battery industry in my blog, which should help you with your purchases in China.

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