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What Is the Internal Structure of an Alkaline Battery?

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Disposable alkaline dry battery, also known as alkaline-manganese dioxide disposable dry battery. Several commonly used models such as LR6/AA, LR03/AAA, AAAA, LR20/D, LR14/C, etc. are all cylindrical and have the same structure.

In simple terms, alkaline batteries have steel shell (Fe), sealing ring (polyhexamethylene adipamide (nylon 66)), separator paper (C), zinc powder (Zn), positive ring (MnO2), electrolytic Liquid (KOH), Sealant (C, H), Negative Bottom Cap (Fe), Copper Needle (Cu)

Today, I will make a brief introduction from the outside to the inside in combination with the battery cross-section diagram, so that everyone can understand the characteristics of alkaline batteries more clearly. First let’s look at the picture below:

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I combined the above picture and the main components to do the following simple analysis,

  1. The shape of the steel shell is like a test tube. It is used as a container, and other materials of the battery are put into this container as the positive electrode shell of the battery. The steel shell itself does not participate in the chemical reaction. However, the steel shell is also the main component of the battery, and the quality of the steel shell also determines the quality of the battery. If there are blisters on the steel shell, it is easy to cause the battery to leak during the storage phase.
  2. Manganese ring, manganese ring is a ring-like solid formed by manganese dioxide plus electrolyte and high pressure extrusion. The manganese ring is in direct contact with the steel shell and is close to the inner wall of the steel shell. There are basically 3 positive rings in each battery. The manganese dioxide positive ring needs to participate in a chemical reaction during the battery discharge process.
  3. Separator, the function is to separate the positive and negative electrodes. When the battery is in working condition, only electrons pass through it. The role of the diaphragm paper is very important, because a large amount of electrolyte will be adsorbed on the diaphragm paper, and the main component of the electrolyte is potassium hydroxide, which is strongly alkaline and has a strong corrosive effect. If the quality of the diaphragm paper is not good, it will take a long time. It is easy to perforate, and it is easy to cause direct contact between the positive and negative electrodes, forming a short circuit and causing leakage.
  4. Zinc paste, zinc paste is a mixture of zinc powder, electrolyte, and deionized water to form a paste. The zinc paste is wrapped in the separator paper and completely separated from the positive manganese ring. The zinc purity in the zinc paste must be high. If there are other metal impurities in it, it is easy to generate gas during the chemical reaction process, causing the battery to swell and even leak.
  5. Copper needle, we call it Anode collector, the copper needle is used to connect the positive and negative electrodes, and the copper needle is inserted into the zinc paste. The end of the copper needle is welded to the negative iron bottom of the battery. In this way, when the positive and negative poles are connected, a loop is formed.
  6. The sealing ring is the sealing gromet, and its function is to play a sealing role. Seal the positive and negative electrodes and separator paper inside the battery steel case. The sealing ring must be well sealed, otherwise the electrolyte will flow out from the periphery of the sealing ring, which will cause leakage.
  7. The negative bottom cover, called Anode cap, is mainly made of iron, and one end of the copper needle is welded to the negative bottom cover.

For more knowledge about alkaline batteries, please pay attention to my blog at any time, and welcome to send emails to communicate. Our Micropower battery always strives for development with quality. Through continuous research and development, we have improved the level of technology, improved the testing and quality inspection of raw materials, and ensured that high-quality batteries have been produced.

Carl Zhang

Carl Zhang

I am a senior sales with 15 years in the battery industry and a bachelor's degree in economics.
I will be sharing some of my expertise on batteries and my insights into the battery industry in my blog, which should help you with your purchases in China.

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